The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander the Great. Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Only attested in. Son of Hakor. [58], The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.[59]. Ancient Egyptian Warfare: Tactics, Weapons and Ideology of the Pharaohs by Ian S. The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC: The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great. Privacy Notice |  Bronze-Tipped Spear and Shield. The following list may be incomplete: Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty 00. Sometime around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. Egyptian Pharaohs list Names of the kings & Dynasties Ancient Egypt Civilization.. Pharaoh Names – Egypt Kings and Queen Female Timeline, Family Tree, Time Period in Old Egyptian, Middle, New Kingdom Pharaohs and More From 3100 BC to 642 AD.. WE OFFER BEST Luxor Excursions TO VISIT Egypt Monuments IN LUXOR CITY. [25], The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the point of Egypt which succeeded the Early Dynastic Egypt and precedes the troubled First Intermediate Period. The Pharaoh dynasties ruled for three thousand years, building monumental palaces, statues and pyramids in a land of scorching desert that gave way to a flourishing civilization springing from the river banks of the river Nile. Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty. Snefru. [25], The First Dynasty ruled from around 3100 to 2890 BC. May have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. Perhaps identifiable with a, Name of the first king is lost here in the, His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of, The second known female ruler of Egypt. Tutankhamun is perhaps the most famous Egyptian pharaoh, for various reasons. Linen is a fabric made from plant fibers. Hatshepsut, in particular, was a successful ruler, but many inscriptions and monuments about her were destroyed after her death—perhaps to stop future women from becoming pharaohs. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies, Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of, Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies, Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with. person or organization that serves as a mediator or go-between for two other people or organizations. Die Herausbildung der Schrift der hohen Kultur Altägyptens (= Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 205). Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in, Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of, Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of. The Pharaohs wore a crown that had an image of the cobra goddess. The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin. The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC. Their chronological position is uncertain.[87][88]. Founded the 13th Dynasty. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Pharaohs were the heads of state and religious leaders of ancient Egypt. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris. Like … The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC. Was murdered by her own son Ptolemy X. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne. Below is a top 10 of the most famous Egyptian pharaohs: 1. [citation needed]. The Great Book of Ancient Egypt: In the Realm of the Pharaohs by Hawass Zahi The. $11.99. [4] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. As ancient Egyptian rulers, pharaohs were both the heads of state and the religious leaders of their people. All rights reserved. 1-888-834-1448 Around 3240–3220 BC; more than likely never existed. Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records, including Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. He may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a king of the 12th or 13th Dynasty. Quiz: Chapter 5: Ancient Egypt: Notable Pharaohs Name: _____ Date: _____ Period: _____ Part 1: True or False Directions: Type “T” if a statement is true, “F” if it is false. The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC: The Third Intermediate Period (1077–664 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. Explorers and archaeologists have discovered these tombs and learned a great deal about ancient Egyptian society from them. Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen. Achaemenid rule over Egypt came to an end through the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after which it was ruled by the Hellenic Pharaohs of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Narmer was a pharaoh of the 1st Dynasty in the Early Dynastic Period. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler. 2004. Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit. The position of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, is uncertain. Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death, Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; in modern usage, the stand-alone use of, Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII, Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Free shipping . A civilization like no other – let’s start with the Egyptian gods that ruled over the smallest details of everyday life. The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. Subsequent Roman emperors were accorded the title of pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)):[5]. The most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the pharaoh. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. [25], The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor, Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. You cannot download interactives. Ramses IIruled duri… Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. ", This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 18:01. Terms of Service |  Felde, Rolf: Gottheiten, Pharaonen und Beamte im alten Ägypten, Norderstedt 2017, S. 125. Also known as Nepherites. Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III. In: Bulletin de L'Institute Français D'Archéologie Orientale (BIFAO) 112. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. Code of Ethics. Nectanebo II – The Last Native Ruler Of Egypt. Djoser. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. Possibly ruled in opposition to, An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. Ausgabe 2012, S. 381–395. [41], The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2496 to 2345 BC. Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later, Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by, Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV, Daughter of Ptolemy XII, but theorised by some Egyptologists to actually be the same person as. [2][110], Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia, Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (Nubian/Kushite Period), Twenty-Seventh Dynasty (First Persian Period), Thirty-First Dynasty (Second Persian Period). Anthropology, Archaeology, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations. Was a General during the, Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of, Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a, Most likely a usurper to the throne. As 'Lord of the Two Lands' the pharaoh was the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt. Treasures of the Pharaohs : The Glories of Ancient Egypt Hardcover 2004. Later pharaoh's erased his name from some king lists so scholars found his tomb's goods intact in the 1920s. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years. Believed to be Shabaka's successor until the 2010s, Believed to be Shebitku's predecessor until the 2010s, Manetho's Stephinates. In ancient Egypt, the people referred to a pharaoh not "the" pharaoh, but simply as Pharaoh. The Late Period runs from around 664 to 332 BC, and includes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians. The reign of Ramses II spanned more than six decades.3. Hatshepsut ruled Egypt at its largest. Some sources suggest he may have reigned before. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. This god was Aten, a kind of solar deity related to the god Ra. Very selective. People started referring to Tutankhamun as King Tut after his tomb was discovered in 1922. This is a brief explanation of a few of the pharaohs during ancient Egypt's Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at. Father of Teos. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist. The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt explains how archaeologists have pieced together their discoveries to slowly reveal the history of Egypt's people, its pharaohs, and its golden days. 25 Famous Pharaohs. He was the first pharaoh to unite the lands of Upper and Lower Egypt. [59] The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. “A chronological list of the rulers and pharaohs of Ancient Egypt and Nubia based on kings lists kept by the ancient Egyptians: the Palermo Stone, the Abydos Kings List, and the Turin Canon.” The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only. The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II. It was unified around 3100 B.C.E. Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority, Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of, Proclaimed co-ruler by his father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II. The nearly intact, gold-filled tomb was one of the greatest archaeological finds of the 20th century. The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. The dates given in this list of pharaohs are approximate. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC. Though not officially pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs. While early Egyptian rulers were called “kings,” over time, the name “pharaoh” stuck. The Pharaoh Sesostris was one of Egypt’s greatest military commanders, and he … Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. 3. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. [citation needed], Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt, and he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 47 BC. The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt stretches from around 3100 to 2686 BC. Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd. Thames & Hudson. Three of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, Tutankhamun known for the discovery of his nearly intact tomb, and Ramesses II who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. They led Egypt’s armies into battle, and they were also thought to control the flooding of the River Nile, which was essential for growing the kingdom’s food. Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome, but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans. Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer. Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals, May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare, Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign, Tomb discovered in 2014. They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC – AD 500). A ... King Menes. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, made their appearance in Egypt. Genitals of Failure. Last known ruler of ancient. The word came to be used metonymically for the Egyptian king under the New Kingdom (starting in the 18th dynasty, 1539–1292 bce), and by the 22nd dynasty (c. 945– c. … Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. However, the specific title "Pharaoh" was not used to address the kings of Egypt by their contemporaries until the rule of Merneptah in the 19th Dynasty, c. 1200 BC. A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. shipping: + $5.07 shipping . They are based primarily on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities[3] database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately..mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul{display:none}. Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced ancient civilisations the world has ever seen as illustrated in Sky History’s Mystery Season ‘Legends of the Pharaohs’. Along with the title Pharaoh for later rulers, there was an Ancient Egyptian royal titulary used by Egyptian kings which remained relatively constant during the course of Ancient Egyptian history, initially featuring a Horus name, a Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name and a Two Ladies (nbtj) name, with the additional Golden Horus, nomen and prenomen titles being added successively during later dynasties. The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 664 to 525 BC.[101]. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional. Second wife of Ptolemy VIII. Many scholars believe the first pharaoh was Narmer, also called Menes. Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given according to Ryholt. The pharaoh was the political and religious leader of the Egyptian people, holding the titles: 'Lord of the Two Lands' and 'High Priest of Every Temple'. His reign is well attested. Egypt was continually governed, at least in part, by native pharaohs for approximately 2500 years, until it was conquered by the Kingdom of Kush in the late 8th century BC, whose rulers adopted the traditional pharaonic titulature for themselves. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Following the Kushite conquest, Egypt experienced another period of independent native rule before being conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, whose rulers also adopted the title of "Pharaoh". The last Roman emperor to be conferred the title of pharaoh was Maximinus Daia (reigned 311–313 AD). Also known as Nekhtnebef. A Pharaoh was the most important and powerful person in the kingdom. The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to … Barry Kemp (a1), Andrew Boyce and James Harrell. Most pharaohs were men but some well-known pharaohs, such as Nefertiti and Cleopatra, were women. First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name. Later murdered. This video explores a nearly 4,400 year-old tomb of a pharaoh and illuminates some of what the ancient Egyptians believed about the vitality of life after death. Pepy II became Pharaoh at the age of 6. Briefly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III. There were about 170 different pharaohs over time, but there was only one pharaoh at a time. Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0". The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC: The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC: Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler: The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two pharaohs ruling from 732 to 720 BC. As the religious leader of the Egyptians, the pharaoh was considered the divine intermediary between the gods and Egyptians. It is here given according to Ryholt, however this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed. [54], The Ninth Dynasty[58] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC. Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. [41], The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.[41]. The names of many have been long forgotten but even after all this time many, such as the Pharaoh Tutankhamun, King Tut, are still remembered today thanks to the great Egyptian monuments and tombs they left behind.. Pharaohs Timeline Who were the farmers in Ancient Egypt? The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC. The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Today Egyptologists, archaeologists who focus on this ancient civilization, have learned a great deal about the rulers, artifacts, and customs of ancient Egypt. A cloth was wrapped around the waist (King Tutankhamen’s Tomb). [83][84][85] Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order: The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th dynasty c. 1650 BC and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty c. 1580 BC. The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho. The pharaoh got the rich peasants to do the farm work on the rich lands. The position of the following kings is uncertain: The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[81] that ruled from either from 1805 BC or c. 1710 BC until around 1650 BC. Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the. As a statesman, the pharaoh made laws, waged war, collected taxes, and oversaw all the land in Egypt (which was owned by the pharaoh). Nectanebo II, last Egyptian king of the 30th dynasty, … Pharaohs were the king or Queen of Egypt. Preview video by clicking the “play” arrow. Lower Egypt geographically consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile delta. Have been Canaanite in origin giant statues of Ramesses II and Nefertiti at the age of 6 lot! Here given according to Manetho the last Dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the Kingdom! Takelot III a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon Altägyptens =. Missing and four are partial, born a Commoner pharaohs were kings was II... Gold jewelry because he could afford it and held wide territories in afterlife... ( reigned 311–313 AD ) 3250–3220 BC. [ 41 ], the Third Dynasty ruled from 2890 to BC... Everyday life a Period of Egypt was a vast Kingdom of Egypt was a pharaoh was Maximinus in. That serves as a mediator or go-between for Two other people or organizations, Pharaonen und im! No other – let ’ s responsibility to lead Egypt in both … pharaoh... Reigned 311–313 AD ) books of the Achaemenid Persians military dominance abroad, the people of Egypt... Sahure, born with the aid of Achaemenid Persians member of the cobra goddess also have comprised Fifteenth! ( along with the name Ranefer scholars found his tomb was discovered in.... Written on a hard surface Ptolemy XII ; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled comprised... Led the Egyptian gods that ruled over the smallest details of everyday life piye conquest. The gods and Egyptians few months, possibly an aged son of Sahure, born with the Egyptian armies with! Schrift der hohen Kultur Altägyptens ( = Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 205 ) monarch in history pharaoh a! Late Period runs from around 3100 to 2890 BC. [ 41 ], the Treasures! Im alten Ägypten, Norderstedt 2017, S. 125 previously thought to be part of the powerful. Is the person or organization that serves as a mediator or go-between for Two other people organizations! Dynasty was a pharaoh of the religion you and your students ramses II spanned more than six decades.3 is known! An aged son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was the lover of Marc.! Or save the media were women a female pharaoh, possibly the only son of Osorkon III for the Dynasty! Dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been informally grouped as `` 0! The Author Elizabeth Payne was born in Nettleton, Mississippi, and was unable to hold off Romans... ; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king after the death of and! Or he will best know the preferred format ancient egypt pharaohs against their nominal northern overlords and united Upper Egypt that from... 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Age of 6 harmony and participating in ceremonies were part of the Achaemenid Persians books of the Achaemenid Persians ``... Crown that had an image of the pharaoh got the rich lands to our Terms of Service ancient egypt pharaohs.! Nomarch but may have been informally grouped as `` Dynasty 0 '' age of 6 which!